Oct 27 2012

Looking Under the Covers of StatsD

Category: Debuggingjgoulah @ 12:24 PM

Intro

StatsD is a network daemon that runs on the Node.js platform and listens for statistics, like counters and timers. Packets are then sent to one or more pluggable backend services. The default service is Graphite. Every 10 seconds the stats sent to StatsD are aggregated and forwarded on to this backend service. It can be useful to see what stats are going through both sides of the connection – from the client to StatsD and then from StatsD to Graphite.

Management Interface

The first thing to know is there is a simple management interface built in that you can interact with. By using either telnet or netcat you can find information directly from the command line. By default this is listening on port 8126, but that is configurable in StatsD.

The simplest thing to do is send the stats command:

% echo "stats" | nc statsd.domain.com 8126          
uptime: 365
messages.last_msg_seen: 0
messages.bad_lines_seen: 0
graphite.last_flush: 5
graphite.last_exception: 365

This tells us a bit about the current state of the server, including the uptime, and the last time a flush was sent to the backend. Our server has only been running for 365 seconds. It also lets us know when the length of time since StatsD received its last message, bad lines sent to it, and the last exception. Things look pretty normal.

You can also get a dump of the current timers:

(echo "timers" | nc statsd.domain.com 8126) > timers

As well as a dump of the current counters:

(echo "counters" | nc statsd.domain.com 8126) > counters

Take a look at the files generated to get an idea of the metrics StatsD is currently holding.

On the Wire

Beyond that, its fairly simple to debug certain StatsD or Graphite issues by looking at whats going on in realtime on the connection itself. On the StatsD host, be sure you’re looking at traffic across the default StatsD listen port (8125), and specifically here I’m grep’ing for the stat that I’m about to send which will be called test.goulah.myservice:

% sudo tcpdump -t -A -s0 dst port 8125 | grep goulah
listening on eth0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 65535 bytes

Then we fake a simple client on the command line to send a sample statistic to StatsD like so:

echo "test.goulah.myservice:1|c" | nc -w 1 -u statsd.domain.com 8125

Back on the StatsD host, you can see the metric come through:

e......."A.test.goulah.myservice:1|c

There is also the line of communication from StatsD to the Graphite host. Every 10 seconds it flushes its metrics. Start up another tcpdump command, this time on port 2003, which is the port carbon is listening on the Graphite side:

% sudo tcpdump -t -A -s0 dst port 2003 | grep goulah
listening on eth0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 65535 bytes

Every 10 seconds you should see a bunch of stats go by. This is what you are flushing into the Graphite backend. In our case I’m doing a grep for goulah, and showing the data aggregated for the metric we sent earlier. Notice there are two metrics here that look slightly different than the metric we sent though. StatsD sends two lines for every metric. The first is the aggregated metric prefixed with the stats namespace. StatsD also sends the raw data prefixed by stats_counts. This is the difference in the value per second calculated and the raw value. In our case they identical:

stats.test.goulah.myservice 0 1351355521
stats_counts.test.goulah.myservice 0 1351355521

Conclusion

Now we can get a better understanding of what StatsD is doing under the covers on our system. If metrics don’t show up on the Graphite side it helps to break things into digestible pieces to understand where the problem lies. If the metrics aren’t even getting to StatsD, then of course they can’t make it to Graphite. Or perhaps they are getting to StatsD but you are not seeing the metrics you would expect when you look at the graphs. This is a good start on digging into those types of problems.

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Jan 09 2012

Distributed MySQL Sleuthing on the Wire

Category: Databases,Real-time Web,SSH,Systemsjgoulah @ 8:52 AM

Intro

Oftentimes you need to know what MySQL is doing right now and furthermore if you are handling heavy traffic you probably have multiple instances of it running across many nodes. I’m going to start by showing how to take a tcpdump capture on one node, a few ways to analyze that, and then go into how to take a distributed capture across many nodes for aggregate analysis.

Taking the Capture

The first thing you need to do is to take a capture of the interesting packets. You can either do this on the MySQL server or on the hosts talking to it. According to this percona post this command is the best way to capture mysql traffic on the eth0 interface and write it into mycapture.cap for later analysis:

% tcpdump -i eth0 -w mycapture.cap -s 0 "port 3306 and tcp[1] & 7 == 2 and tcp[3] & 7 == 2"
tcpdump: listening on eth0, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet), capture size 65535 bytes
47542 packets captured
47703 packets received by filter
60 packets dropped by kernel

Analyzing the Capture

The next step is to take a look at your captured data. One way to do this is with tshark, which is the command line part of wireshark. You can do yum install wireshark or similar to install it. Usually you want to do this on a different host than the one taking traffic since it can be memory and CPU intensive.

You can then use it to reconstruct the mysql packets like so:

% tshark -d tcp.port==3306,mysql -T fields -R mysql.query -e frame.time -e ip.src -e ip.dst -e mysql.query -r mycapture.cap

This will give you the time, source IP, destination IP, and query but this is still really raw output. Its a nice start but we can do better. Percona has released the Percona Toolkit which includes some really nice command line tools (including what used to be in Maatkit).

The one we’re interested in here is pt-query-digest

It has tons of options and you should read the documentation, but here’s a few I’ve used recently.

Lets say you want to get the top tables queried from your tcpdump

% tcpdump -r mycapture.cap -n -x -q -tttt | pt-query-digest --type tcpdump --group-by tables --order-by Query_time:cnt \
 --report-format profile --limit 5
reading from file mycapture.cap, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet)

# Profile
# Rank Query ID Response time Calls R/Call Apdx V/M   Item
# ==== ======== ============= ===== ====== ==== ===== ====================
#    1 0x        0.3140  6.1%   674 0.0005 1.00  0.00 shard.images
#    2 0x        0.8840 17.1%   499 0.0018 1.00  0.03 shard.activity
#    3 0x        0.1575  3.1%   266 0.0006 1.00  0.00 shard.listing_images
#    4 0x        0.1680  3.3%   265 0.0006 1.00  0.00 shard.connection_edges_reverse
#    5 0x        0.0598  1.2%   254 0.0002 1.00  0.00 shard.listing_translations
# MISC 0xMISC    3.5771 69.3%  3534 0.0010   NS   0.0 <86 ITEMS>

Note the tcpdump options I used this time, which the tool requires to work properly when passing –type tcpdump. I also grouped by tables (as opposed to full queries) and ordered by the count (the Calls column). It will stop at your –limit and group the rest into MISC so be aware of that.

You can remove the –order-by to sort by response time, which is the default sort order, or provide other attributes to sort on. We can also change the –report-format, for example to header:

% tcpdump -r mycapture.cap -n -x -q -tttt | pt-query-digest --type tcpdump --group-by tables --report-format header 
reading from file mycapture.cap, link-type EN10MB (Ethernet)

# Overall: 5.49k total, 91 unique, 321.13 QPS, 0.30x concurrency _________
# Time range: 2012-01-08 15:52:05.814608 to 15:52:22.916873
# Attribute          total     min     max     avg     95%  stddev  median
# ============     ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= ======= =======
# Exec time             5s     3us   114ms   939us     2ms     3ms   348us
# Rows affecte         316       0      13    0.06    0.99    0.29       0
# Query size         3.64M      18   5.65k  694.98   1.09k  386.68  592.07
# Warning coun           0       0       0       0       0       0       0
# Boolean:
# No index use   0% yes,  99% no

If you set the –report-format to query_report you will get gobs of verbose information that you can dive into and you can use the –filter option to do things like getting slow queries:

% tcpdump -r mycapture.cap -n -x -q -tttt | \
  pt-query-digest --type tcpdump --filter '($event->{No_index_used} eq "Yes" || $event->{No_good_index_used} eq "Yes")'

Distributed Capture

Now that we’ve taken a look at capturing and analyzing packets from one host, its time to dive into looking at our results across the cluster. The main trick is that tcpdump provides no option to stop capturing – you have to explicitly kill it. Otherwise we’ll just use dsh to send our commands out. We’ll assume you have a user that can hop around in a password-less fashion using ssh keys – setting that up is well outside the scope of this article but there’s plenty of info out there on how to do that.

There’s a few ways you can let a process run on a “timeout” but I’m assuming we don’t have any script written or tools like bash timeout or the one distributed in coreutils available.

So we’re going off the premise that you will background the process and kill it after a sleep by grabbing its pid:

( /path/to/command with options ) & sleep 5 ; kill $!

Simple enough, except we’ll want to capture the output on each host, so we need to ssh the output back over to the target using a pipe to grab the stdout. This means that $! will return the pid of our ssh command instead of our tcpdump command. We end up having to do a little trick to kill the right process, since the capture won’t be readable if we kill ssh command that is writing the output. We’ll need to kill tcpdump and to do that we can look at the parent pid of the ssh process, ask pkill (similar to pgrep) for all of the processes that have this parent, and finally kill the oldest one, which ends up being our tcpdump process.

Then end result looks like this if I were to run it across two machines:

% dsh -c -m web1000,web1001 \
   'sudo /usr/sbin/tcpdump -i eth0 -w - -s 0 -x -n -q -tttt "port 3306 and tcp[1] & 7 == 2 and tcp[3] & 7 == 2" | \
   ssh dshhost "cat - > ~/captures/$(hostname -a).cap" & sleep 10 ; \
   sudo pkill -o -P $(ps -ef | awk "\$2 ~ /\<$!\>/ { print \$3; }")'

So this issues a dsh to two of our hosts (you can make a dsh group with 100 or 1000 hosts though) and runs the command concurrently on each (-c). We issue our tcpdump on each target machine and send the output to stdout for ssh to then cat back to a directory on the source machine that issued the dsh. This way we have all of our captures in one directory with each file named with the target name of each host the tcpdump was run. The sleep is how long the dump is going to run for before we then kill off the tcpdump.

The last piece of the puzzle is to get these all into one file and we can use the mergecap tool for this, which is also part of wireshark:

% /usr/sbin/mergecap -F libpcap -w output.cap *.cap

And then we can analyze it like we did above.

Further Reading

References

http://www.mysqlperformanceblog.com/2011/04/18/how-to-use-tcpdump-on-very-busy-hosts

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/687948/timeout-a-command-in-bash-without-unnecessary-delay

http://www.xaprb.com/blog/2009/08/18/how-to-find-un-indexed-queries-in-mysql-without-using-the-log/

Breaking the distributed command down further

Just to clarify this command a bit more, particularly how the kill part works since that was the trickiest part for me to figure out.

When we run this

$ dsh -c -m web1000,web1001 \
   'sudo /usr/sbin/tcpdump -i eth0 -w - -s 0 -x -n -q -tttt "port 3306 and tcp[1] & 7 == 2 and tcp[3] & 7 == 2" | \
   ssh dshhost "cat - > ~/captures/$(hostname -a).cap" & sleep 10 ; \
   sudo pkill -o -P $(ps -ef | awk "\$2 ~ /\<$!\>/ { print \$3; }")'

on the server the process list looks something like

user     12505 12504  0 03:12 ?        00:00:00 bash -c sudo /usr/sbin/tcpdump -i eth0 -w - -s 0 -x -n -q -tttt "port 3306 and tcp[1] & 7 == 2 and tcp[3] & 7 == 2" | ssh myhost.myserver.com "cat - > /home/etsy/captures/$(hostname -a).cap" & sleep 5 ; sudo pkill -o -P $(ps -ef | awk "\$2 ~ /\<$!\>/ { print \$3; }")
pcap     12506 12505  1 03:12 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/tcpdump -i eth0 -w - -s 0 -x -n -q -tttt port 3306 and tcp[1] & 7 == 2 and tcp[3] & 7 == 2
user     12507 12505  0 03:12 ?        00:00:00 ssh myhost.myserver.com cat - > ~/captures/web1001.cap

So $! is going to return the pid of the ssh process, 12507. We use awk to find the process matching that, and then print the parent pid out, which is then passed to the -P arg of pkill. If you use pgrep to look at this without the -o you’d get a list of the children of 12505, which are 12506 and 12507. The oldest child is the tcpdump command and so adding -o kills that guy off.

So if we were only running the command on one host we could use something much simpler

ssh dbhost01 '(sudo /usr/sbin/tcpdump -i eth0 -w - -s 0 port 3306) & sleep 10; sudo kill $!' | cat - > output.cap

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